4. What are the quality dimensions?
Updated: Nov 14, 2019
This blog is prepared to give answers to questions such as 1) what are the quality dimensions for "goods"? 2) What are the quality dimensions for "services"? 3) Are these dimensions are the same or different? 4) What are the key issues for these dimension? ...
The cost of quality is the expense of doing things wrong. Phil Crosby
Nowadays, since new approaches such as business process re-engineering, lean management, and six sigma have emerged, Total Quality Management (TQM) may be considered to be outdated and lost its appeal. In order to understand whether this idea is valid or not, it is useful to know what “goods quality” or “service quality” means. What are the characteristics of "goods and service quality"? Is it easy to understand and evaluate the quality characteristics/dimensions.
Before going further, what is the definition of "quality"? Is there one and all accepted definition for quality? Unfortunately, there is no single and common definition for the “quality".
As one of well-known quality gurus, Dr.Doulas C.Montgomery, states there are two view for the definition of quality.
Based on traditional view, quality means fitness for use. On the other hand, based on modern view, quality is inversely proportional to variability. (Montgomery, 2009:5-6) 
It can be summarized as follows.
Let's see what are the dimension of "goods quality"? (Montgomery, 2009:4-5), [2, 3]
You will see the key dimension names of "goods quality" and related question to ask in order to determine the level of that quality dimension.
✑ 1. Performance: Will the product do the intended job?
✑ 2. Reliability: How often does the product fail?
✑ 3. Durability: How long does the product last?
✑ 4. Serviceability: How easy is it to repair the product?
✑ 5. Aesthetics: What does the product look like?
✑ 6. Features: What does the product do?
✑ 7. Perceived quality: What is the reputation of the company or its product?
✑ 8. Conformance to standards: Is the product made exactly as the designer intended?
The listed above eight dimensions can be used primarily on "goods". But, there is another ten dimensions used for determining the level of "service quality" (Parasuraman vd., 1984).
✑ 1. Tangibles: Is it real?
✑ 2. Service reliability: Is it continuous and successful?
✑ 3. Responsiveness: Is it reactive in terms of place and quantity?
✑ 4. Assurance: Is its services quality assured?
✑ 5. Empathy: Is the customer need’s tracked?
✑ 6. Availability: Is it ready when it is needed?
✑ 7. Professionalism: Are moral and values considered highly during the service?
✑ 8. Completeness: Does it meet the requirement completely?
✑ 9. Timeliness: Does it provided on time?
✑ 10. Pleasantness: Is customer satisfaction measured?
The quality dimensions regardless of goods or quality, are all important and complementary to one another.
Therefore, It is highly recommended to consider all 18 dimensions in a systematic way during the planning, executing and evaluating of goods and services.
Please remember any of these dimensions can negatively, inversely effect the other dimensions in unprecedented ways easily.
Keep an eye on 18 dimensions altogether. I wish you have a good team and organization on quality.
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Quality is not an act, It is a habit. Aristotle.
Quality is free. It's not a gift, but it's free. The "unquality" things are what cost money.
  Mongomery, C., Douglas. (2009). A Statistical Quality Control: A Modern Introduction. Indiana: Wiley.
 Garvin, D.A. (1987). “Competing in the Eight Dimension of Quality”. Harvard Business Review,Sept.-Oct.,87(6),pp.101-109.
 Parasuraman, A., Zeithamel, V., and Berry, L. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. Marketing Science Institute. The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Autumn, 1985:41-50)